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Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1
(HIV-1)

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HIV-1 taxonomy

Viruses - Retro-transcribing viruses - Retroviridae - Orthoretrovirinae - Lentivirus - Primate lentivirus group - Human immunodeficiency virus 1

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Introduction

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HIV-1 discovery and early history

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Epidemiology of HIV Infection in Large Urban Areas in the United States

Hall HI, Espinoza L, Benbow N, Hu YW; Urban Areas HIV Surveillance Workgroup. Epidemiology of HIV Infection in Large Urban Areas in the United States. PLoS One. 2010 Sep 15;5(9):e12756.

Introduction

This is the first report using national surveillance data to describe the epidemic of HIV in 12 metropolitan statistical areas (MSA) of United States. The following urban areas were reported: Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA; Baltimore-Towson, MD; Chicago, IL-IN-WI; Dallas, TX; Houston-Baytown-Sugar Land, TX; Los Angeles, CA; Miami, FL; New York, NY-NJ-PA; Philadelphia, PA-NJ-DE-MD; San Francisco, CA; Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL; Washington, DC-VA-MD-WV.

Rates of diagnoses in 2007

In 2007, a total of 52,755 adolescents and adults were diagnosed with HIV in the United States and reported to CDC by the end of June 2009. Of these, 43,024 (81.6%) were living in urban areas with populations of 500,000 or more, and 25,997 (49.3%) were living in the 12 MSAs included in these analyses. The rates of diagnosis of HIV infection in the MSAs ranged from 22.8 per 100,000 population (Chicago MSA) to 77.2 (Miami MSA), and in cities/counties ranged from 29.2 (Los Angeles County) to 246.4 (Washington, DC). Forty-eight percent (Tampa MSA) to 85.7% (Baltimore MSA) of the new diagnoses were among non-whites.

Differences in HIV-1 prevalence of HIV-1 in racial groups in 2007

At the end of 2007, a total of 793,348 adolescents and adults were diagnosed and living with HIV in the United States and reported to CDC by the end of June 2009. Of these, 400,814 (50.5%) were diagnosed in the 12 MSAs and included in these analyses. More than 1% of the population of the Miami MSA was living with HIV infection by the end of 2007 (1021.8 per 100,000 population). Overall HIV prevalence was also high in the MSAs of New York (806.3 per 100,000), Baltimore (777.6), DC (641.0) and San Francisco (622.7). In 9 of the 13 corresponding cities more than 1% of the population living with HIV infection, and in Atlanta, Baltimore, Fort Lauderdale, San Francisco, and Washington, DC the prevalence was more than 2%. In each MSA, more than 1% of the black/African American population was living with HIV at the end of 2007; prevalence was more than 2% in Miami, New York, and Baltimore. Among Hispanics, prevalence was above 1% in the MSAs of New York and Philadelphia.

Differences between age categories in 2007

About a fifth of the persons diagnosed with HIV in Baltimore, Miami, and Tampa MSAs were aged less than 30 years at diagnosis, while more than 36% of diagnoses were among this age group in Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, and Los Angeles. Conversely, in MSAs with the lowest percentage of diagnoses among the young more than 20% of diagnoses were among those aged 50 years or older. While information on country of birth was incomplete (data completeness ranged from less than 1% to almost 50%), some differences emerged with the largest percentage of persons diagnosed with HIV who were foreign-born in Los Angeles (21.1%), followed by Miami (14.9), San Francisco (10.3%), Houston (10.5%), New York (9.0%), Tampa (7.0%), and Chicago 5.8%).

Differences between genders and nature of sexual transmission in 2007

About 14% (Los Angeles and San Francisco MSAs) to 36.5% (Baltimore MSA) of persons diagnosed with HIV in 2007 were women; the majority of these infections were attributed to heterosexual contact. Baltimore MSA (30.3%) and San Francisco MSA (27.0%) had the highest percentages of women with reported injection drug use (IDU). Among men diagnosed with HIV, in the MSAs more than 70% were men who have sex with men (MSM) except in Baltimore (52.4%), New York (66.8), Philadelphia (46.9%) and Washington (65.3%). Heterosexual contact accounted for about 20% of HIV infections among men in DC, Miami, and Baltimore MSAs, and 33.8% in Philadelphia. The distribution of HIV risk categories among men diagnosed with HIV in 2007 in the cities was similar to the distribution for the respective MSAs. Overall among all persons diagnosed with HIV, more than 50% of the HIV diagnoses in 2007 were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact in 7 of the 12 MSAs; heterosexual transmission surpassed or equaled male-to-male sexual transmission in Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC.

HIV-1 in medical literature (PubMed database)

HIV publication trends from 80's up to now

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AIDS is one of the worst scourges that descended on the mankind as recently as about 100 years ago. Today, AIDS and HIV-1 are in the main stream of modern medical research together with influenza, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and, of course, cancers.

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