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Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1)

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HIV-1 taxonomy

Retroviridae - Orthoretrovirinae - Lentivirus - Primate lentivirus group - Human immunodeficiency virus 1

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HIV-1 anatomy

HIV-1 anatomy, attachment and entry

HIV-1 genome consists of 9 separate genes coding for 3 structural (Gag, polymerase, Env) and 6 accessory proteins (Vif, Vpr, Vpu, Rev, Tat, Nef). Similar to other retroviruses, HIV-1 had a long-terminal repeat (LTR), which served as the promoter region for transcription of the virus.

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Aspects of HIV-1 biology

Thus, one of most prominent feature of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the genetic breadth and plasticity of its populations achieved by both, recombination and point mutations. For comparison, the total global genetic variation of influenza A is approximately the same as the variation found in a single HIV-infected individual (~5%). Mitochondrial genes across all mammalian lineages have only 15% genetic diversity, whereas HIV-1, present within human population for about a century, has developed greater than 30% genetic variation.

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Literature

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