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Bacterial pathogens

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Based on:
Ecker DJ, Sampath R, Willett P, Wyatt JR, Samant V, Massire C, Hall TA, Hari K, McNeil JA, Büchen-Osmond C, Budowle B. The Microbial Rosetta Stone Database: A compilation of global and emerging infectious microorganisms and bioterrorist threat agents BMC Microbiol. 2005; 5: 19.

 

Orders

 

Bacillales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Firmicutes - Bacilli - Bacillales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Bacillaceae - Bacillus - Bacillus anthracis
Transmitted by spores formed in substrate (i.e. soil) contaminated with diseased tissues (i.e. from corpses of infected animals ravaged by predators and scavengers); spores can stay viable for years underground in mass burial sites. Anthrax is not contagious (transmittable from human to human). High Potential For Bioengeneering; CDC Notifiable Agent; Validated Biological Weapon; Validated Biocrime Agent; NAIAD Category A Priority Pathogen; USDA High Consequence Animal Pathogen; HHS Select Agent The infection is cutaneous in about 95% of human cases and respiratory in about 5%. Approximately 2,000 cases of cutaneous anthrax are reported annually worldwide. Beyer W et al. (Mol Aspects Med. 2009);
 
Hugh-Jones M et al. (Medicine (Mol Aspects Med. 2009);
 
"Bacillus anthracis"[title];
 
"anthrax"[title]
Bacillaceae - Bacillus - Bacillus cereus
Widespread in nature and frequently isolated from soil and growing plants; frequently contaminates food. Medicaly Important Human pathogen; Emerging Infectious Agent; Principal Foodborne Pathogen. Causes two types of food poisoning, the emetic and diarrheal syndromes, and a variety of local and systemic infections. Stenfors Arnesen LP et al. (FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2008);
 
Schoeni JL et al. (J Food Prot. 2005 Mar)
Staphylococcaceae - Staphylococcus - Staphylococcus aureus
Common hospital- and community-acquired pathogen; transmitted through contact with symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers. Principal Foodborne Pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent; Globally Important Human Pathogen; USDA High Consequence Animal Pathogen; Causes severe fulminant infections; bacteremia; meningitis; toxic shock syndrome, etc. Methycilin-resistant (MRSA) S. aureus at MetaPathogen
Listeriaceae - Listeria - Listeria monocytogenes
Lives in the soil as a saprophyte but is capable of making the transition into a pathogen following its ingestion by susceptible humans or animals. Zoonotic Agent; Principal Foodborne Pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent; Globally Important Human Pathogen; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen Febrile gastroenteritis, perinatal infection, and systemic infections marked by central nervous system involvement with or without bacteremia Freitag NE et al. (Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009);
 
Drevets DA, Bronze MS. (FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2008);
 
"Listeria monocytogenes"[title]
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Lactobacillales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Firmicutes - Bacilli - Lactobacillales -

Streptococcaceae - Streptococcus - Streptococcus pneumoniae
Most common pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia; the nasopharynx of children is an important global ecological reservoir of drug-resistant pneumococcus (DRP) and may also play a critical role as the favoured anatomical site for the evolution of DRP. CDC Notifiable Agent; Globally Important Human Pathogen Colonizes the mucosal surfaces of the host nasopharynx and upper airway. Can spread from the upper respiratory tract to the sterile regions of the lower respiratory tract, which leads to pneumonia; causes meningitis, otitis media, and sinusitis. Kadioglu A et al. (Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008);
 
Lynch JP 3rd et al. (Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2009);
 
De Lencastre H et al. (J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002)
Streptococcaceae - Streptococcus - Streptococcus pyogenes
Common pathogen of hospital- and community-acquired infections; transmitted through contact with symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers. Medically important human pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent Causes severe soft tissue infections; bacteremia; meningitis; toxic shock syndrome, etc. "group A streptococcus"[title];
 
"Streptococcus pyogenes"[title]
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Clostridiales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Firmicutes - Clostridia - Clostridiales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Clostridiaceae - Clostridium - Clostridium botulinum
Associated with food; historically, with sausages (Latin word for sausage = "botulus"); can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants who ingested bacteria. Toxin can enter the body via inhalation, ingestion or injection. Medically important human pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent; Validated Biocrime Agent; NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen; USDA High Consequences Animal Pathogen; HHS Select Pathogen Has 4 naturally occurring syndromes: foodborne, wound, infant botulism, and adult intestinal toxemia. All of these produce symmetrical cranial nerve palsies followed by descending, symmetric flaccid paralysis of voluntary muscles, which may progress to respiratory compromise and death. Fenicia L et al. (Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2009);
 
Brook I. (Rev Neurol Dis. 2006);
 
"clostridium botulinum"[title]
 
"botulism"[title]
Clostridiaceae - Clostridium - Clostridium difficile
A major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea within the hospital setting; risk factors include fluoroquinolone exposure and gastric acid suppression; can be commonly found in food animals and food but whether ingestion of contaminated food can result in colonization or infection remains unclear. Emergent Infectious Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen Violent infectious diarrhea and fulminant colitis; may cause death. Hookman P et al. (World J Gastroenterol. 2009);
 
Weese JS. (Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010 );
 
"clostridium difficile"[title]
Clostridiaceae - Clostridium - Clostridium perfringens
A common cause of food-borne illness due to an ability to form heat-resistant spores that survive normal cooking/heating temperatures, a rapid growth rate in warm food, and the production of enterotoxin (CPE) in the human gut. Emergent Infectious Agent; Principal Foofborne Pathogen; Medically Important Human Pathogen; Validated Biological Weapon; USDA High Consequences Animal Pathogen Causes food poisoning accompanied with acute gastroenteritis and has been reported in association with necrotizing enteritis. Brynestad S et al. (Int J Food Microbiol. 2002 );
 
Meer RR et al. (Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 1997);
 
"Clostridium perfringens"[title]
Clostridiaceae - Clostridium - Clostridium tetani
Natural habitat is soil, dust, and intestinal tracts of various animals. Infection occurs via bacterial contamination at a laceration or break in the skin. Can also occur as a complication of burns, umbilical stumps (tetanus neonatorum) and surgical-site infection. CDC Notifiable Agent; Globally Important Human Pathogen; Validated Biocrime Agent Neuromuscular dysfunction, caused by tetanal exotoxin (tetanospasmin), which starts with tonic spasms of the skeletal muscles and is followed by paroxysmal contractions. The muscle stiffness initially involves the jaw (lockjaw) and neck and later becomes generalized. Brook I. (Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2008);
 
"Clostridium tetani"[title]
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Spirochaetales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Spirochaetes - Spirochaetes (class) - Spirochaetales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Spirochaetaceae - Borrelia - Borrelia burgdorferi
Tick-borne; circulates in endemic areas between Ixodes sp. ticks and a large number of vertebrate hosts upon which ticks feed. Ixodes scapularis, black-legged tick, deer tick - vector of Lyme disease - facts and life cycle at MetaPathogen High Potential For Bioengeneering; Emergent Infectious Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen Lyme disease usually starts with erythema migrans; later infection becomes systemic; up to 5% of patients develop cardiac involvement; in about 10% to 15% of patients, the nervous system becomes symptomatically involved. Borrelia burgdorferi, Lyme disease spirochete taxonomy, facts, pathogenicity, bibliography at MetaPathogen
Spirochaetaceae - Treponema - Treponema pallidum
Transmitted through sexual intercourse or through skin-to-skin contact, epidemiology highly depends on subspecies. CDC Notifiable Agent; Globally Important Human Pathogen Subspecies cause syphilis, yaws, bejel, and pinta. Treponema pallidum, sperochete causative agent of syphilis: taxonomy, history, biology at MetaPathogen
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Chlamydiales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Chlamydiae - Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia group - Chlamydiae - Chlamydiae (class) - Chlamydiales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Chlamydiaceae - Chlamydia - Chlamydia trachomatis
The most common sexually transmitted infection; also transmitted from mother to child. Emergent Infectious Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; Globally Important Human Pathogen Causes genital tract infections in men, women, and children. Even asymptomatic infection may lead to severe reproductive complications in women such as infertility, tubal pregnancy, and cancer. Exposed infants often develop conjunctivitis, pneumonia, or both in the first few months of life. Lyons JM et al. (Drugs Today (Barc). 2009);
 
Steben M. (J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004);
 
"Chlamydia trachomatis"[title]
Chlamydiaceae - Chlamydophila - Chlamydophila psittaci
Transmission usually originates from close contact with infected birds, most frequently in the context of the poultry industry, and from contact with Psittaciformes (cockatoos, parrots, parakeets and lories). Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; Important Animal Pathogen; Medically Important Human Pathogen; Potential Biological Weapon Causes pneumonia, may cause respiratory failure and death. Beeckman DS et al. (Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009);
 
"Chlamydophila psittaci"[title]
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Actinomycetales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Actinobacteria - Actinobacteria (class) - Actinobacteridae - Actinomycetales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Corynebacterineae - Corynebacteriaceae - Corynebacterium - Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Transmitted by close contact through droplets or nasopharyngeal secretions. Emergent Infectious Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; Validated Biocrime Agent Nasopharyngitis, tonsillitis or laryngitis plus a pseudomembrane; may lead to endocarditis. Toxicogenic strains may cause airway obstruction, swelling of the neck, petechial haemorrhages, circulatory collapse, acute renal failure, myocarditis, motor paralysis, and death. Mokrousov I. (Mokrousov I.);
 
Wilson AP. (J Antimicrob Chemother. 1995);
 
"Corynebacterium diphtheriae"[title]
Corynebacterineae - Mycobacteriaceae - Mycobacterium - Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Airborne; transmitted by close contact through droplets or nasopharyngeal secretions. Patients with pulmonary TB whose sputum is smear-positive for M. tuberculosis form the main source of infection in communities. Emergent Infectious Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; Validated Biocrime Agent; Globally Important Human Pathogen; NIAID Category C Priority Pathogen About 20% of those infected actually develop tuberculosis (TB). Histologically, tuberculosis displays exudative inflammation in lungs, proliferative inflammation and productive inflammation (granulomatous lesions with necrotic centers are formed). Comas I, Gagneux S. (PLoS Pathog. 2009);
 
API Consensus Expert Committee. (J Assoc Physicians India. 2006);
 
"Mycobacterium tuberculosis"[title];
 
Corynebacterineae - Mycobacteriaceae - Mycobacterium - Mycobacterium avium
Some evidence suggests that humans may become infected via contaminated milk. Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; Important Animal Pathogen; Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in ruminants. A growing body of evidence suggests that human infection may be causing some, and possibly all, cases of Crohn's disease. Pierce ES. (PLoS Pathog. 2009);
 
Biet F. (Vet Res. 2005);
 
"Mycobacterium avium"[title]
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Rickettsiales (rickettsias)

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Proteobacteria - Alphaproteobacteria - Rickettsiales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Rickettsiaceae - Rickettsia - Rickettsia prowazekii
Louse-borne; transmitted by body louse Pediculus humanus corporis. Pediculus humanus, human louse, head and body: life cycle, myths and facts, treatment of pediculosis at MetaPathogen Zoonotic Agent; HHS Select Agent; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen; Validated Biocrime Agent; Validated Biological Agent Causes louse-borne epidemic typhus (LBET); symptoms include severe headache, a sustained high fever, cough, rash, severe muscle pain, chills, falling blood pressure, stupor, sensitivity to light, and delirium. "epidemic typhus"[title];
 
"Rickettsia prowazekii"[title]
Rickettsiaceae - Rickettsia - Rickettsia rickettsii
Tick-borne; the disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. Ixodes scapularis, black-legged tick, deer tick - vector of Lyme disease - facts and life cycle at MetaPathogen Zoonotic Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; Globally Important Human Pathogen; NIAID Category C Priority Pathogen Causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever; symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. "Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever"[title];
 
"Rickettsia rickettsii"[title]
Rickettsiaceae - Rickettsia - Rickettsia typhi
Flea-borne; associated with R. rattus and R. norvegicus; in California and Texas, the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, has been implicated. Ctenocephalides felis, cat flea - facts and life cycle at MetaPathogen Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; Validated Biological Weapon; Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes murine typhus; symptoms include fever, headache, chills, vomiting, nausea, myalgia, and rash. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).(MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009);
 
"murine typhus"[title];
 
"Rickettsia typhi"[title]
Anaplasmataceae - Anaplasma - Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Tick-borne (Ixodes spp.); the infection is emerging in the eastern U.S. and remains stable or rare in the west. A high international seroprevalence suggests infection is widespread but unrecognized. Ixodes scapularis, black-legged tick, deer tick - vector of Lyme disease - facts and life cycle at MetaPathogen Emergent Infectious Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes anaplasmosis; causes an acute, nonspecific febrile illness of humans previously known as human granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and now called human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis (HGA). Bakken JS, Dumler JS. (Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006);
 
"anaplasmosis"[title];
 
"Anaplasma phagocytophilum"[title]
Anaplasmataceae - Ehrlichia - Ehrlichia chaffeensis
Tick-borne; the vast majority have originated in states where lone star ticks and white-tailed deer are abundant (from New Jersey to Kansas and southward). Ixodes scapularis, black-legged tick, deer tick - vector of Lyme disease - facts and life cycle at MetaPathogen CDC Notifiable Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes ehrlichiosis; flu-like illness can progress to severe multisystem disease with toxic shock-like syndrome, meningitis, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Walker DH et al.(Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2004);
 
"ehrlichiosis"[title];
 
"Ehrlichia chaffeensis"[title]
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Rhizobiales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Proteobacteria - Alphaproteobacteria - Rhizobiales -

Brucellaceae - Brucella - Brucella melitensis
Zoonotic agent; consumption of contaminated foods and occupational contact remain the major sources of infection. High Potential For Bioengeering; Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen; USDA High Consequences Animal Pathogen; Medically Important Human Pathogen; HHS Select Agent Causes brucellosis; a systemic infection with multiple presentations including fever, gastrointestinal, respiratory, dermal, or neurologic complications are not uncommon. Corbel MJ. (Emerg Infect Dis. 1997);
 
"brucellosis"[title] ;
 
"Brucella melitensis"[title]
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Burkholderiales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Proteobacteria - Betaproteobacteria - Burkholderiales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Alcaligenaceae - Bordetella - Bordetella pertussis
Acquired through infected droplets from other hosts. Display a strong tropism for the cilia of the respiratory mucosa, which are the main, if not the only, site of infection for these bacteria. Emergent Infectious Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; Globally Important Human Pathogen Infect the respiratory tract of mammals and causes pertussis or whooping cough in humans. Preston A. (CMAJ. 2005);
 
"Bordetella pertussis"[title]
Burkholderiaceae - Burkholderia - pseudomallei group -
Burkholderia mallei
Burkholderia pseudomallei
B. mallei can be transmitted both from animal to animal and animal to human, while human-to- human transmission is rare.
The main reservoir for B. pseudomallei is contaminated soil and water. Human-to-human as well as zoonotic transmission is extremely rare. Both infections can be acquired through percutaneous inoculation, inhalation or ingestion, and more rarely, through sexual intercourse.
High Potential For Bioengeneering; Zoonotic Agent; USDA High Consequences Animal Pathogen; Validated Biological Weapon; Validated Biocrime Agent; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen; HHS Select Pathogen B. mallei causes melioidosis; symptoms include chronic lung infection, abscess formation in internal organs, bacteremia (40–60%), septic shock, mortality up to 60%.
B. pseudomallei causes glanders in humans and farcy in animals; human symptoms include fever, ulcerative necrosis of the respiratory tract with purulent nasal discharge, pneumonia, lymphadenopathy, and pustular skin lesions; septicemia follows with involvement of various internal organs.
Gilad J. (Isr Med Assoc J. 2007);
 
"Burkholderia mallei"[title] OR "Burkholderia pseudomallei"[title]
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Neisseriales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Proteobacteria - Betaproteobacteria - Neisseriales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Neisseriaceae - Neisseria - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Usually sexually-transmitted; communal baths, towels or fabric, rectal thermometers and caregivers hands were identified as means of transmission, especially in children. CDC Notifiable Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes cervicitis, urethritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease; has adverse consequences for reproductive health and facilitates the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. Tapsall J. (Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2002);
 
"gonorrhoea"[title];
 
"Neisseria gonorrhoeae"[title]
Neisseriales - Neisseriaceae - Neisseria - Neisseria meningitidis
Mainly transmitted from person to person by droplets from nasopharyngeal carriers in crowded places. CDC Notifiable Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen Colonizes nasopharynx mucosal surfaces; often commensal; virulent strains cause epidemic meningococcal meningitis (meningococcal meningitis) and sepsis; can cause cerebral ischaemia, hearing impairement, dementia and other nerological complications. Tebruegge M et al.(Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008);
 
"meningococcal meningitis"[title] OR "bacterial meningitis"[title];
 
"Neisseria meningitidis"[title]
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Campylobacterales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Proteobacteria - delta/epsilon subdivisions - Epsilonproteobacteria - Campylobacterales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Campylobacteraceae - Campylobacter - Campylobacter jejuni
Foodborne disease has been associated most frequently with the ingestion of raw milk, but poultry, hamburger, and other foods have all been implicated as potential sources. Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; Principal Food-Borne Pathogen; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen; Globally Important Human Pathogen Colonizes the gastrointestinal tracts of domestic and wild animals and while rarely causes clinical disease in food animals, can produce severe acute gastroenteritis (campylobacteriosis) in humans; is considered to be the most prevalent cause of bacterial-mediated diarrhoeal disease worldwide. Horrocks SM et al. (Anaerobe. 2009);
 
Janssen R et al. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008);
 
"Campylobacter jejuni"[title]
Helicobacteraceae - Helicobacter - Helicobacter pylori
Humans have been colonized by H. r pylori for at least 50,000 years and probably throughout their evolution. H. pylori has adapted to humans, colonizing children and persisting throughout life. Emergent Infectious Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen Most strains possess factors that subtly modulate the host environment, increasing the risk of peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and possibly other diseases. Atherton JC et al. (J Clin Invest. 2009);
 
Mbulaiteye SM et al. (Front Biosci. 2009);
 
"Helicobacter pylori"[title]
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Legionellales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Proteobacteria - Gammaproteobacteria - Legionellales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Legionellaceae - Legionella - Legionella pneumophila
Inhalation of aerosols coming from natural and man-made fresh water reservoirs containing various species amoebae infected by the microorganism. Emergent Infectious Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen; Potential Biological Weapon; CDC Notifiable Agent Causes Legionnaires' Disease (LD), an acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. Legionella pneumophila, causative agent of Legionnaire's disease and Pontiac fever: facts, pathogenicity, life cycle, bibliography at MetaPathogen
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Pseudomonadales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Proteobacteria - Gammaproteobacteria - Pseudomonadales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Moraxellaceae - Acinetobacter - Acinetobacter baumannii
Commonly targets the most vulnerable hospitalized patients, those who are critically ill with breaches in skin integrity and airway protection. Emergent Infectious Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen Hospital-acquired pneumonia is still the most common infection caused by this organism. However, in more recent times, infections involving the central nervous system, skin and soft tissue, and bone have emerged. Peleg AY et al. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008);
 
Dijkshoorn L et al. (Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007);
 
"Acinetobacter baumannii"[title]
Moraxellaceae - Moraxella - Branhamella - Moraxella catarrhalis
Has long been considered a harmless commensal microorganism of the upper respiratory tract; currently considered to be one of most common nosocomial respiratory infections (hospital-acquired) especially within respiratory wards. Globally Important Human Pathogen An exclusively human pathogen; causes respiratory syndrome (e.g., sinusitis, otitis media, bronchitis, and pneumonia) and ocular infections in children and laryngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia in adults. Bacteremia and other severe complications may occur. Murphy TF et al. (Clin Infect Dis. 2009);
 
Verduin CM et al. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002);
 
"Moraxella catarrhalis"[title]
Pseudomonadaceae - Pseudomonas - Pseudomonas aeruginosa group - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Is part of a large group of free-living bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment; one of the leading nosocomial pathogens (hospital-acquired) worldwide. Emergent Infectious Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen Can cause a wide range of infections (endocarditis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, meningitis, and septicemia); is a leading cause of illness in immunocompromised patients; can cause keratitis, especially in patients wearing contact lenses; is a major pathogen in burn and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with a high mortality rate. Mena KD et al. (Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2009);
 
El Solh AA et al. (J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009);
 
"Pseudomonas aeruginosa"[title]
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Aeromonadales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Proteobacteria - Gammaproteobacteria - Aeromonadales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Aeromonadaceae - Aeromonas - Aeromonas sp.
Ubiquitous in fresh water, fish and shellfish, meats, and fresh vegetables; infections are usually food- and water-borne as well nosocomial (hospital-acquired). Medically Important Human Pathogen Self-limiting diarrhea in children; skin and soft-tissue infections and aspiration pneumonia. Merino S et al. (Int J Food Microbiol. 1995);
 
Ghenghesh KS et al. (J Infect Dev Ctries. 2008);
 
"Aeromonas"[title]
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Vibrionales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Proteobacteria - Gammaproteobacteria - Vibrionales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Vibrionaceae - Vibrio - Vibrio cholerae
Natural inhabitant of freshwater, brackish and coastal-water habitats; can colonize some zooplankton species but pathogenic only in humans; contracted by ingestion of contaminated water or food and is therefore associated with inadequate sanitation and poverty. High Potential For Bioengeneering; CDC Notifiable Agent; Validated Biological Weapon; Validated Biocrime Agent; Globally Important Human Pathogen; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen Causes severe diarrhoeal disease cholera. Butler SM et al. (Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005);
 
Vanden Broeck D et al. (Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007);
 
"Vibrio cholerae"[title]
Vibrionaceae - Vibrio - Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Widely distributed in the marine environments; frequently isolated from a variety of raw seafoods, particularly shellfish; acquired through ingestion of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood; common cause of foodborne illnesses in many Asian countries. Emergent Infectious Agent; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen; Principal Foodborne Pathogen Acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, headache, vomiting, nausea, and abdominal cramps. Nair GB et al. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007);
 
Su YC, Liu C. (Food Microbiol. 2007);
 
"Vibrio parahaemolyticus"[title]
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Thiotrichales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Proteobacteria - Gammaproteobacteria - Thiotrichales --

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Francisellaceae - Francisella - Francisella tularensis
Occurs naturally in diverse ecological niches including mammals, arthropods, and fresh water protozoans; posesses high infectivity in aerosols. Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; Potential Biological Weapon; HHS Select Pathogen; Medically Important Human Pathogen; NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen; USDA High Consequence Animal Pathogen Causes pulmonary tularemia, which in the absence of treatment has a mortality rate of 35%. McLendon MK et al. (Annu Rev Microbiol. 2006);
 
Hazlett KR et al. (Infect Immun. 2008);
 
"Francisella tularensis"[title]
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Pasteurellales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Proteobacteria - Gammaproteobacteria - Pasteurellales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Pasteurellaceae - Haemophilus - Haemophilus influenzae
Circulates between children who can carry H. influenzae in throat and nasopharynx. Children can contract the infection after being exposed to the carriers or become ill after their immune system was compromized by malnutrition, exposure to low temperature, etc. Emergent Infectious Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; Globally Important Human Pathogen H. influenzae type b (Hib) is a leading cause of childhood bacterial meningitis, otitis media, sinusitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and pneumonia especially in children. Peerbooms PG et al. (J Clin Microbiol. 2002);
 
Tristram S et al. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007);
 
"Haemophilus influenzae"[title]
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Enterobacteriales

cellular organisms - Bacteria - Proteobacteria - Gammaproteobacteria - Enterobacteriales -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Klebsiella - Klebsiella pneumoniae
Eighty percent of the outbreaks involve infections of the bloodstream or urinary tract. Person-to-person spread is the most common mode of transmission, and nearly 50% of the outbreaks occur in neonatal intensive care units. Emergent Infectious Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes a distinct clinical syndrome consisting of pyogenic liver abscesses, sometimes accompanied by meningitis and abscesses elsewhere. Keynan Y, Rubinstein E. (Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2007);
 
Jarvis WR et al. (Infect Control. 1985);
 
"Klebsiella pneumoniae"[title]
Proteus - Proteus mirabilis
The microorganism can be recovered from urine of infected patients; usually nosocomial (hospital-acqired) transmissions occur but extra-hospital transmissions have been documented. Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes cystitis and pyelonephritis primarily in individuals with indwelling catheters or structural abnormalities of the urinary tract. Coker C et al. (Microbes Infect. 2000);
 
Nagano N et al. (J Clin Microbiol. 2003);
 
"Proteus mirabilis"[title]
Enterobacteriaceae - Yersinia - Yersinia pestis
Can be contracted by (1) being bitten by infected flea, (2) eating infected animals, (3) handling pets infected through the consumption of plague-infected rodents. High Potential For Bioengeneering; Zoonotic Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; Validated Biological Weapon; Validated Biocrime Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen; HHS Slect Pathogen; NIAID Category A priority Pathogen Causes bubonic and pneumonic plague. "plague"[title];
 
"Yersinia pestis"[title]
Enterobacteriaceae - Yersinia - Yersinia enterocolitica
Comprises both pathogenic and nonpathogenic members. The main sources of human infection are assumed to be pork and pork products, as pigs are a major reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Principal Foodborne Pathogen; Validated Biocrime Agent; NIAID Category B priority Pathogen Causes acute gastrointestinal tract infection; may spread extraintestinally; bacteremia is a major concern; metastatic foci following bacteremia are common and often involve the liver and spleen; postinfection sequelae include arthritis and erythema nodosum. Autenrieth SE et al. (Int J Med Microbiol. 2008);
 
Bottone EJ. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 1997);
 
"Yersinia enterocolitica"[title]
Enterobacteriaceae - Shigella - Shigella flexneri
Highly infectious, with ingestion of as few as 100 organisms resulting in disease (Dupont et al. 1989); transmitted by person-to-person contact or indirectly through contaminated food or water. Principal Foodborne Pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen; NIAID Category B priority Pathogen Clinical outcomes range from watery diarrhoea to classic dysentery characterized by fever, violent intestinal cramps and discharge of mucopurulent and bloody stools; inlammation of the infected tissue is a key feature of shigellosis; causes more than one million deaths annually. Philpott DJ et al. (Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2000);
 
"shigellosis"[title];
 
"Shigella flexneri"[title]
Enterobacteriaceae - Salmonella - Salmonella enterica
Colonizes the intestines of food-producing animals and contaminate the avian reproductive tract and eggs; transmitted by contaminated food, especially by infected eggs. Zoonotic Agent; Principal Foodborne Pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent; Globallly Important Human Pathogen; NIAID Category B priority Pathogen; Potential Biological Weapon Infections may present in a variety of ways, from asymptomatic colonization to inflammatory diarrhoea, paratyphoid fever or typhoid fever depending on serovar- and host-specific factors. Raffatellu M et al. (J Infect Dev Ctries. 2008);
 
Hanning IB et al. (Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009);
 
"Salmonella enterica"[Majr]
Enterobacteriaceae - Escherichia - Escherichia coli
STEC strains usually transmitted through the food chain from their animal reservoirs (cattle that excrete more Escherichia coli O157 than others are known as super-shedders); main routes of infection are ingestion of contaminated food, environmental exposure, direct person-to-person and person-to-animal contacts. Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; Principal Foodborne Pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent; Globally Important Human Pathogen; NIAID Category B priority Pathogen; High Potential for Bioengeneering Usually nonpathogenic, but pathogenic strains (virotypes) are known to produce diarrhea and severe pyogenic infections. Virotypes are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms. The five main categories include (1)enterotoxinogenic E. coli (ETEC), (2)enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), (3)enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC), (4)enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and (5)Shiga (Vero) toxin-producing E. coli (STEC/VTEC). Rasmussen MA et al. (Crit Rev Microbiol. 2001);
 
Chase-Topping M et al. (Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008);
 
"Escherichia coli/pathogenicity"[Majr] OR "Escherichia coli/pathology"[Majr]
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Series of posters, prints and greeting cards with information on human bacterial pathogens are available at GeoChemBio shop

bacterial pathogens part 1 bacterial pathogens part 2
bacterial pathogens part 3 bacterial pathogens part 4
bacterial pathogens part 5  
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