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Helminths

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Based on:
Ecker DJ, Sampath R, Willett P, Wyatt JR, Samant V, Massire C, Hall TA, Hari K, McNeil JA, Büchen-Osmond C, Budowle B. The Microbial Rosetta Stone Database: A compilation of global and emerging infectious microorganisms and bioterrorist threat agents BMC Microbiol. 2005; 5: 19.

 

 

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Nematoda

cellular organisms - Eukaryota - Fungi/Metazoa group - Metazoa - Eumetazoa - Bilateria - Pseudocoelomata - Nematoda - Chromadorea -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Rhabditida - Strongylida - Metastrongyloidea (lungworms) - Angiostrongylidae - Angiostrongylus - Angiostrongylus cantonensis
Rat lungworm, distributed throughout the Pacific islands. Infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection is caused by consumption of raw or undercooked snails or slugs, paratenic hosts such as prawns, or contaminated vegetables. Medically Important Human Pathogen; Zoonotic Agent The three main clinical forms of infection can develop in response to dying larvae: eosinophilic meningitis (EoM), eosinophilic encephalitis (EoE) and ocular angiostrongyliasis. EoM, the most common, causes acute severe headache. EoE is rare but fatal. Ocular form is very rare and causes a permanent visual impairment. Sawanyawisuth K et al. (Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008);
 
Wang QP et al. (Lancet Infect Dis. 2008);
 
"Angiostrongylus cantonensis"[Majr]
 
Ascaridida - Ascaridoidea - Ascarididae - Ascaris - Ascaris lumbricoides
Soil-transmitted. Human infection is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil. Medically Important Human Pathogen Ascariasis is classified by severity of manifestations, which usually correlates with parasite burden. Five types are recognized that range from asymptomatic to fatal. Ascaris lumbricoides, roundworm, causative agent of ascariasis: life cycle, health implications at MetaPathogen
Ascaridida - Ascaridoidea - Ascarididae - Baylisascaris - Baylisascaris procyonis
Raccoon roundworm. Humans become infected by accidentally ingesting infective eggs from raccoon latrines or articles contaminated with their feces. Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes devastating or fatal neural larva migrans in infants and young children presented as acute fulminant eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, and ocular larva migrans in adults. Gavin PJ et al. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005);
 
"Baylisascaris"
 
Enoplea - Enoplia - Trichocephalida - Trichuridae - Trichuris - Trichuris trichiura
Human whipworm. Soil-transmitted. Human infection is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil. Medically Important Human Pathogen Most infected individuals have no distinct symptoms. Ok KS et al. (Korean J Parasitol. 2009);
 
"Trichuris trichiura"
 
Enoplea - Enoplia - Trichocephalida - Trichinellidae - Trichinella - Trichinella spiralis
It is common in animals and can spread from its reservoir in wild animals to synanthropic animals, domestic animals and people. Transmitted by ingestion of flesh containing Trichinella larvae - the larvae being the progeny of adult worms that inhabited the gut of the first animal and destined to mature to adulthood in the gut of the second. Humans are usually infected after consuming meat of swine that fed on garbage and carrion. Medically Important Human Pathogen;
CDC Notifiable Agent;
Zoonotic Agent
Causes trichinellosis in humans and animals. Mild diarrhea and nausea occurs on early stage (penetration of intestinal mucosa). In 2 to 6 weeks, moderate infection (stage at which new larvae develop and migrate to muscle tissue) can produce diffuse myalgia, a paralysis-like state, periorbital and/or facial edema, conjunctivitis, fever, headache, skin rash, difficulties in swallowing, etc. Capó V, Despommier DD. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 1996);
 
Gottstein B et al. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009);
 
Campbell WC. (Parasitol Today. 1988);
 
Mitreva M, Jasmer DP. (WormBook. 20062);
 
"Trichinella"[Majr]
 
"Trichinellosis"[Majr]
 
Rhabditida - Panagrolaimoidea - Strongyloididae - Strongyloides - Strongyloides stercoralis
Widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. Infection occurs when free living third stage larvae penetrate the skin, pass through the circulation to the lungs, enter the airways, and are then swallowed. Medically Important Human Pathogen The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea. Because of its ability of replicating within humans, the parasite can cause a hyperinfection syndrome and disseminated infection several years after exposure. Singh S. (J Assoc Physicians India. 2002);
 
"Strongyloides stercoralis"[Majr]
 
Spirurida - Filarioidea - Onchocercidae - Wuchereria - Wuchereria bancrofti
Transmitted by mosquitoes. Urban infection, as seen in South-East Asia, is related to poor urban sanitation, which leads to intense breeding of Culex quiquefasciatus, the principal vector. Rural strains of the parasite are transmitted primarily by Anopheles spp. and Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria (collectively known as lymphatic filariasis) by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. Of the estimated 90.2 million people infected, more than 90% have bancroftian filariasis caused by W. bancrofti. Detailed information about Wuchereria bancrofti and lymphatic filariasis at MetaPathogen
Spirurida - Filarioidea - Onchocercidae - Brugia - Brugia malayi
Brugian filariasis is mainly a rural disease transmitted by Mansonia, Anopheles and Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The periodic form of B. malayi is principally a human parasite, whereas the subperiodic form is zoonotically transmitted in some countries. Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria (collectively known as lymphatic filariasis) by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. Detailed information about Brugia malayi and lymphatic filariasis at MetaPathogen
Rhabditida - Strongylida - Ancylostomatoidea - Ancylostomatidae - Ancylostomatinae -
Ancylostoma - Ancylostoma duodenale
Bunostominae - Necator - Necator americanus
Human hookworms are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. Infection occurs when free living third stage larvae penetrate the skin, pass through the circulation to the lungs, enter the airways, and are then swallowed. Infection with N. americanus can occur only through skin penetration by L3 larvae. A. duodenale can infect humans upon swallowing of the larvae. Medically Important Human Pathogen The major clinical symptom of the hookworm infection is iron-deficiency anemia accompanied by other physical signs such as sickly yelowish color of the skin, hypothermia, eosinophilia (high concentration of eosinophils in the blood), abdominal pain, fatigue, and impotence. Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, human-specific hookworms: life cycle, health implications at MetaPathogen
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Cestoda

cellular organisms - Eukaryota - Fungi/Metazoa group - Metazoa - Eumetazoa - Bilateria - Acoelomata - Platyhelminthes - Cestoda -

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Eucestoda - Cyclophyllidea - Taeniidae - Echinococcus - Echinococcus granulosus
Adult form infects the digestive tract of canids and felids. Humans become infected by oral uptake of eggs excreted by infected carnivores. The infection may be acquired by handling infected definitive hosts, egg-containing feces, or egg-contaminated plants or soil followed by direct hand-to-mouth transfer. Medically Important Human Pathogen; Zoonotic Agent Larval stage causes cystic echinococcosis or hydatid cyst disease. Affects mainly liver but can spread to lungs and brain. Eckert J, Deplazes P. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004);
 
Nonaka N et al. (J Vet Med Sci. 2009);
 
"Echinococcus granulosus"[Majr]
 
Eucestoda - Cyclophyllidea - Taeniidae - Echinococcus - Echinococcus multilocularis
Adult form infects the digestive tract of canines and felids. Humans become infected by oral uptake of eggs excreted by infected carnivores. The infection may be acquired by handling infected definitive hosts, egg-containing feces, or egg-contaminated plants or soil followed by direct hand-to-mouth transfer. Medically Important Human Pathogen; Zoonotic Agent Larval stage causes alveolar echinococcosis. Characteristic feature of this stage is its exogenous tumour-like proliferation, which leads to infiltration of the affected organs and, in progressive cases, to severe disease and even death. The desease affects liver as well other organs. Eckert J, Deplazes P. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004);
 
Hegglin D, Deplazes P. (Emerg Infect Dis. 2008);
 
"Echinococcus multilocularis"[Majr]
 
Eucestoda - Cyclophyllidea - Taeniidae - Taenia - Taenia solium
Intestinal infection is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork. Cysticercosis is acquired by humans through ingestion of eggs excreted with feces of definitive hosts (canids, felids, other humans). Medically Important Human Pathogen; Zoonotic Agent Larval stage causes cysticercosis, a disease characterized by development of larval cysts in the body. Neurocysticercosis (cysts develop in central nervous system) is potentially fatal. Adult stage of the parasite causes intestinal single-worm infection, which in majority of cases, is asymptomatic. Taenia spp., tapeworm, causative agent of cysticercosis/taenosis: life cycle, health implications at MetaPathogen
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