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- Taxonomy lineage of Triatominae (main page)
- General information (main page)
- Genera of Triatominae family (main page)
- Panstrongylus genus (new page)
- Rhodnius genus (new page)
- Triatoma genus (new page)
- Life history (new page)
- References (main page)
Predominantly associated with terrestrial rocky habitats or
(Gaunt M, Miles M., 2002).
Panstrongylus genera are more closely related to each other than
to Rhodnius genus.
- T. arthurneivai Distributed in Brazil (Forattini OP et al., 1968). Sylvatic but can infest houses after natural habitat's disruption (Rodrigues VL et al., 1992).
- T. barberi Distributed in Mexico. Shares a wide range of peridomicilary habitats with T. longipennis (Walter A et al., 2007).
- T. bassolsae Distributed in Mexico (Aguilar RA et al., 1999). Is not considered an important vector (Sandoval-Ruiz CA et al., 2008).
- T. bolivari Distributed in Mexico. Found in peridomestic and domestic habitats (Ramsey JM et al., 2000).
- T. brasiliensis Brazilian. Can colonize houses (Gonçalves TC et al., 2009). In nature, inhabits rock piles. Biology of females: Daflon-Teixeira NF et al., 2009. Life cycle: Soares RP et al., 2000.
- T. bruneri Poorely studied.
- T. circummaculata Found in Brazil. Rupestrian, can be a vector (Martins LP et al., 2006).
- T. costalimai Found in Brazil. Can be found outside and inside the houses (de Oliveira AW, da Silva IG., 2007).
- T. dimidiata The main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador. Presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats. Sylvatic populations serve as sources of re-infestation (Bargues MD et al., 2008). Is currently the main Chagas vector in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, and the second most important vector in Honduras and Colombia (Dorn PL et al., 2007). Breeds within cane and wood houses. (Aguilar V HM et al., 1999) Existence of peridomestic and sylvatic populations precludes efficient eradication.
- T. eratyrusiformis Found in Argentina. Poorly researched. Is not considered an important vector (Lauricella MA et al., 2005).
- T. flavida Distributed in Cuba. Life cycle: Cabello DR, Lizano E., 2001.
- T. garciabesi Found in Argentina. Does not colonize houses (Canale DM et al., 2000).
- T. gerstaeckeri North American. Found in Texas (USA) and in Mexico (Villagrán ME et al., 2008); associated with human dwellings (Kjos SA et al., 2008). Feeding/defecation: Martínez-Ibarra JA et al., 2007.
- T. guasayana A sylvatic vector of Chagas' disease, occurs in hardwood forest biotopes and peridomestic habitats such as goat or sheep corrals, piled materials and orchard fences Canale DM et al., 2000) of the dry Chaco region of Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay (Vazquez-Prokopec GM et al., 2008). This is is the only wild triatomine found sympatric with T. infestans in peridomestic premises (Wisnivesky-Colli C et al., 1997). Does not colonize houses (Canale DM et al., 2000).
- T. guazu Found in Mato Grosso Region (Brasil); closely related to T. jurbergi; sylvatic (Silva MB et al., 2002).
- T. hegneri Poorely studied. Found in Central America (Bargues MD et al., 2008).
- T. infestans Highly domiciliated; can be found in good quality housing (Gaunt M, Miles M., 2002). Together with R. prolixus has major importantce as a vector of T. cruzi. Sylvatic colonies can be only found in one of regions in central Bolivia in association with wild guinea pigs. Still remains, the most important and widespread vector of Chagas disease in South America and represents the main target of control programs as part of the Southern Cone Initiative. Has the following characteristics that make it vulnerable to eradication: (i) relatively slow rate of repopulation; (ii) limited range of habitats (domestic and peridomestic areas, except for some sylvatic populations in parts of central Bolivia); (iii) limited capacity for active dispersal; (iv) complete susceptibility to modern pyrethroid insecticides; and (v) low genetic variability, suggesting a low tendency to develop insecticidal resistance (Yamagata Y, Nakagawa J., et al., 2006).
- T. jurbergi Found in Mato Grosso Region (Brasil); closely related to T. guazu; sylvatic (Silva MB et al., 2002). Can be infected with T. cruzi (Silva MB et al., 2003).
- T. klugi Life cycle: Emmanuelle-Machado P et al., 2002.
- T. lecticularia North American. Found in Texas; associated with human dwellings (Kjos SA et al., 2008). Feeding/defecation: Martínez-Ibarra JA, et al., 2007.
- T. longipennis Principal species colonizing rocks used as borders for fields in western Mexico (Magallón-Gastélum E et al., 2004). Can colonize peridomestic environments and rural houses (Magallón-Gastélum E et al., 2006). Feeding habits: Brenière SF et al., 2004. Predominating ecotopes are pile of blocks, chicken coops, pigsties, wall crawls and beds (Martínez-Ibarra JA et al., 2001).
- T. maculata Distributed in Amazonian basin, found in Venezuela; mainly found associated with the presence of hens nesting both indoors and outdoors; secondary vector (Sanchez-Martin MJ, et al., 2006). Life cycle / defecation: Luitgards-Moura JF et al., 2005; Aldana E, Lizano E., 2004.
- T. matogrossensis Poorly studied.
- T. mazzottii Infected bugs were found in Mexico in caves inhabited with bats and other mammals (Rojas JC et al., 1989). Life cycle: Malo EA et al., 1993.
- T. melanosoma Poorly studied.
- T. mexicana Distributed in Mexico. Can enter houses but reproduces outdoors (Salazar Schettino PM et al., 2007). Life cycle: Martínez-Ibarra JA et al., 2008.
- T. nitida Found in Central America. The presence of T. nitida was found to be significantly associated with the average minimum temperature. Exists at altitudes above 1000 m above sea level in temperate regions (Bustamante DM et al., 2007). Emergent vector (Ponce C., 2007). Life cycle: Galvão C, et al., 1995.
- T. pallidipennis Found in Mexico; can infest peridomestic and domestic environments (Galvão C et al., 1995; Cohen JM et al., 2006). Predominating ecotopes are stone heaps (Bautista NL et al., 1999). Life cycle: Martínez-Ibarra JA, Katthain-Duchateau G., 1999.
- T. patagonica Found in Argentina. Can colonize peridomestic environment where it is mostly associated with chicken (Wisnivesky-Colli C, et al., 2003). Feeding / defecation: Rodríguez CS et al., 2008; Nattero J et al., 2002.
- T. phyllosoma One of principal vectors in Mexico (Ramsey JM et al., 2000).
- T. picturata Secondary species colonizing rocks used as borders for fields in Mexico (Magallón-Gastélum E et al., 2004). Can colonize peridomestic environments and rural houses (Magallón-Gastélum E et al., 2006).
- T. platensis An ornitophilic species, found in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil (Salvatella R et al., 1991).
- T. protracta Western bloodsucking conenose. North American, native to California (Deneris J, Marshall NA., 1989). Cases of transmission of T. cruzi by this species in California are documented (Navin TR et al., 1985). Bites can cause severe allergic reactions including anaphylaxis (NICHOLS N, GREEN TW., 1963). Feeding / defecation: Martínez-Ibarra JA et al., 2007; Klotz SA et al., 2009.
- T. pseudomaculata Brazilian; an arboricolous species in sylvatic environment and considered a vector of T. cruzi in peridomestic structures (Carbajal de la Fuente AL et al., 2010). Can infest houses (de Assis GF et al., 2007; de Oliveira AW, da Silva IG., 2007). Life cycle: Carbajal de la Fuente AL et al., 2010.
- T. recurva Found in northwestern Mexico and southern Arizona (Pfeiler E et al., 2006); in peridomestic (Paredes EA et al., 2001).
- T. rubida Native to California (Deneris J, Marshall NA., 1989); found in northwestern Mexico and southern Arizona (Pfeiler E et al., 2006); often infected; found in houses (Paredes EA et al., 2001). Life cycle: Martínez-Ibarra JA et al., 2005. Feeding / defecation: Klotz SA et al., 2009.
- T. rubrofasciata Large kissing bug. Peridomestic species; almost exsclusively associated with Rattus rattus. Bite is extremely painful and at least one death from anphylactic shock in humans was documented. The only species of triatomines found in Africa where it was probably brought by merchant ships. Feeding / defecation habits: Braga MV, Lima MM., 1999. Life cycle: Braga MV et al., 1998.
- T. rubrovaria Distributed in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay (Pacheco RS et al., 2007). Sylvatic, colonize ecotopes near houses (Martins LP et al., 2008). Life cycle: Damborsky MP et al., 2005.
- T. ryckmani Emergent vector of Chagas' disease in Central America (Ponce C., 2007). Found to have high dispersal and colonization capacity (Monroy C et al., 2004). Life cycle / feeding: Zeledón R et al., 2010.
- T. sanguisuga Bloodsucking conenose. Found in Texas; associated with human dwellings (Kjos SA et al., 2008).
- T. sherlocki Remains poorly studied, and is known only from the type locality: the district of Santo Inácio, municipality of Gentio do Ouro, Bahia, Brazil. Specimens were found both within domiciles as well as in the wild (Almeida CE et al., 2009).
- T. sordida Associated with arboreal habitats; feeds primarily on birds (Gaunt M, Miles M., 2002).
- T. tibiamaculata Mostly sylvatic, associated with the marsupial and rodent nests in bromelias but can be found in a very wide range of habitats; is capable of invading houses in Salvador and northeastern Brazil (Dias-Lima AG, Sherlock IA., 2000). Life history traits: Rodrigues VL et al., 2007.
- T. venosa Is considered as a secondary vector of Chagas disease in Colombia and Ecuador. Found in the domicile and peridomiciliary environments. (Aguilar V HM et al., 1999; Vargas E et al., 2006).
- T. vitticeps Geographical distribution is limited to the Brazilian states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais (MG), and Rio de Janeiro. Although considered to be of secondary importance in T. cruzi transmission to man, this species shows high rates of trypanosome infection (Souza Rde C et al., 2008). Mostly sylvatic but can establishes peridomiciliary colonies; associated with nests of opossums (Didelphis aurita) (Gonçalves TC et al., 2008). Feeding / defecation: dos Santos CB et al., 2006. Life history traits: Gonçalves TC et al., 1989; Dawson A et al., 1978.
- Triatoma williami Found in Brazil (Travassos Filho LP., 1972).