MetaPathogen.com/Triatominae - life history

 

abstract image
abstract image

Please help keeping these websites open for everybody as long as possible

 

Triatominae, kissing bugs

Print

Life cycle

Triatomines greatly vary in their life history traits; however general development steps are like this: the eggs hatch nymphs of first instars, which reach fifth instars after four molts and then, after last molting, become adult. Each stage is strictly hematophagous. At least one full blood meal is required for molting (shedding of outer cuticular layer, also called, ecdysis). Molting is followed by growing and hardening of new, bigger exoskeleton of the bug. When a nymph reaches the adult stage it may require one or more blood meals for successful copulation and oviposition of viable eggs. However, it was shown that females of some species can lay a limited number of viable eggs without prior access to food.

 

Back to top

Microtomus purcis (Drury) numphs and adults

Microtomus purcis (Drury) numphs and adults

Reduviid bugs Microtomus purcis (Drury) in San Diego zoo's display. Nymphs of different stages are marked with blue arrows and adult is marked with red arrow. Microtomus purcis belongs to subfamily Microtominae within Reduviidae family, which makes it a close relative of triatomines. The species was implicated as accidental vector of T. cruzi (UNDIANO C., 1964).

Back to top

Comparative timetable of life histories

The table is presented to demonstrate how life history parameters may vary among and within species.

For species represented in the table detailed data can be found in the corresponding references. Descriptions and references for other triatomine species can be found:

Time required for each stage to be completed is given in days.

Species Egg inc. N-I N-II N-III N-IV N-V Ref.
P. geniculatus 21 25 30 58 62 67 Ref.
P. rufotuberculatus 24.2 18.9 15.8 16.6 25.5 36.7 Ref.
R. brethesi 17 18.5 16 21.3 21 38.6 Ref.
R. colombiensis 16.2 14.9 18.5 32.9 29.4 32.5 Ref.
R. prolixus 15.4 12.4 15.3 19.8 25.1 29.7 Ref.
R.
ecuadoriensis
1
Manabi 15.1;
Loja 13.1
Manabi 28.3;
Loja 26.4
Manabi 34.9;
Loja 33.6
Manabi 41.6;
Loja 34.0
Manabi 36.4;
Loja 36.3
Manabi 37.2;
Loja 37.7
Ref.
T. dimidiata - 33(1);
20.2(2)
37(1);
17.9(2)
41(1);
10.1(2)
61(1);
43.6(2)
69(1);
55.1(2)
Ref. (1);
Ref. (2)
T. flavida 27.2 22.1 25.3 36.7 49.7 69.4 Ref.
T. maculata 22(2) 17.8(1); 35(2) 20.8(1) 20.9(1) 24.9(1) 41.4(1); 40(2) Ref. (1);
Ref. (2)
T. mazzottii 24 27 36 39 46 64 Ref.
T. mexicana 2 22.7 (50%), 20.4 (75%) 37.6 (50%), 35.2 (75%) 32.1 (50%), 31.3 (75%) 39.1 (50%), 36.9 (75%) 44.5 (50%), 47.1 (75%) 112.6(50%), 115.8 (75%) Ref.

1 For R. eucadoriensis data presented for bugs captured in Manabi and Loja localities (Ecuador).
2 For T. mexicana data presented for 25 °C, 50% and 75% relative humidity (RH%).


Back to top
Nemose

Various aspects of triatomines' life are studied. Researchers focus on traits that are important for assessment of bugs' potential as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease. Below is the list of life history traits and habits of triatomines that are most important for their vectorial capacity and are most commonly reported in the literature.

History traits of triatomine bugs

Feeding behavior and defecation patterns

Experimental parameters

Back to top Nemose