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Anopheles gambiae
Anopheles gambiae

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Anopheles gambiae,
African malaria mosquito

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Taxonomic lineage

cellular organisms - Eukaryota - Fungi/Metazoa group - Metazoa - Eumetazoa - Bilateria - Coelomata - Protostomia - Panarthropoda - Arthropoda - Mandibulata - Pancrustacea - Hexapoda - Insecta - Dicondylia - Pterygota - Neoptera - Endopterygota - Diptera - Nematocera - Culicimorpha - Culicoidea - Culicidae - Anophelinae - Anopheles - Cellia - Pyretophorus - gambiae species complex - Anopheles gambiae

Brief facts

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Life cycle of A. gambiae

Life cycle can be completed in 1.5-3 weeks.

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Male mating biology

Howell PI, Knols BG. Male mating biology. Malar J. 2009 Nov 16;8 Suppl 2:S8.

Mosquito male mating biology

The sexually mature male:
A. diurnal indoor resting,
B. 1 hour prior to swarming the antennal fibrillae become erect,
C. males depart to commence swarming,
D. After swarming ceases, male ingest a sugar meal prior to resuming indoor resting.

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Anopheles spp. breeding grounds

Keating J, Macintyre K, Mbogo CM, Githure JI, Beier JC. Characterization of potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to urban land-use in Malindi, Kenya. Int J Health Geogr. 2004 May 4;3(1):9. (PMID: 15125778)

Mosquito breeding sites Malindi, Kenya

Pictures illustrating the types of habitat identified by strata during this study: (A) Swimming pool in well drained tourist area; (B) Broken water pipe in well drained residential area; (C) Open water tank in poorly drained area; (D) Pond in poorly drained area; (E) Drainage channel in well drained area; and (F) Ditch and tire tracks in poorly drained area.

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Keating J, Macintyre K, Mbogo CM, Githure JI, Beier JC. Characterization of potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to urban land-use in Malindi, Kenya. Int J Health Geogr. 2004 May 4;3(1):9. (PMID: 15125778)

Anopheles breeding site, Tanzania
Dipper content from sewage pond in Temeke municipality.

Anopheles breeding site, Tanzania
Sewage pond in Temeke municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Anopheles breeding site, Tanzania
"Matuta" type of agriculture in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

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Mapping Anopheles in Africa under climate change

Tonnang HE, Kangalawe RY, Yanda PZ. Predicting and mapping malaria under climate change scenarios: the potential redistribution of malaria vectors in Africa. Malar J. 2010 Apr 23;9:111.

The Anopheles breeding and survival are determined and characterized by rainfall and humidity. In relation to these criteria the following scenarios were chosen:

Distribution of Anopheles gambiae in Africa under climate change scenario
(A) Distribution of A. gambiae under current climate.
(B) Distribution of A. gambiae illustrating species ranges shifts under climate change scenario 1.
(C) Distribution of A. gambiae illustrating species ranges shifts under climate change scenario 2.
(D) Distribution of A. gambiae illustrating species ranges shifts under climate change scenario 3.

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References

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