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dsRNA and Retro-transcribed Viruses

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Based on:
Ecker DJ, Sampath R, Willett P, Wyatt JR, Samant V, Massire C, Hall TA, Hari K, McNeil JA, Büchen-Osmond C, Budowle B. The Microbial Rosetta Stone Database: A compilation of global and emerging infectious microorganisms and bioterrorist threat agents BMC Microbiol. 2005; 5: 19.

 

 

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Reoviridae

viruses - dsRNA viruses -

 

Rotavirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Reoviridae - Sedoreovirinae - Rotavirus -
Rotavirus A    Rotavirus B    Rotavirus C   
Clinical rotavirus disease can be accompanied by shedding rotavirus particles in feces. The virus is highly infectious and appears to retain infectivity over many months. Evidence for zoonotic transmission was detected. Globally Important Human Pathogen; Principal Foodborne Pathogen Causes gastroenteritis. Leading cause of diarrhea worldwide. Specific infections in humans include infantile diarrhea. Dermatologic manifestations include exanthema, Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, and Acute Infantile Hemorrhagic Edema. Bishop RF. (Arch Virol Suppl. 1996);
 
"Rotavirus"[Majr]
 
"Rotavirus Infections"[Majr]
 

 

Coltivirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Reoviridae - Spinareovirinae - Coltivirus - Colorado tick fever virus
Acronym: CTFV
Occurs in the northwestern United States, except the Pacific Coast. Transmitted by the tick Dermacentor andersonii. Medically Important Human Pathogen; Zoonotic Agent Causes fever, chills, aching head and limbs, and often vomiting. Attoui H et al. (Emerg Infect Dis. 2005);
 
"Coltivirus"[Majr]
 
"Colorado tick fever virus"[Majr]
 

 

Seadornavirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Reoviridae - Sedoreovirinae - Seadornavirus - Banna virus
Acronym: BAV
Have been isolated from pigs, cattle, ticks, mosquitoes, and human encephalitis patients. Emerging pathogen from the south-east of Asia. Medically Important Human Pathogen; Zoonotic Agent Can cause encephalitis. Attoui H et al. (Emerg Infect Dis. 2005);
 
"Banna virus"
 
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Retroviridae

viruses - Retro-transcribing viruses -

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Deltaretrovirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Retroviridae - Orthoretrovirinae - Deltaretrovirus - Primate T-lymphotropic virus 1 - Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
Acronym: HTLV-1
Isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. Transmitted from mother to child, through sexual contact, and through contaminated blood products. Emergent Infectious Agent Although most infected individuals are asymptomatic carriers, some 2 to 5% will develop adult T-cell leukemia, T-cell lymphoma. The virus is involved in mycosis fungoides, Sezary syndrome (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) and tropical spastic paraparesis (paralytic myeloneuropathy). Proietti FA et al (Oncogene. 2005);
 
Verdonck K et al. (Lancet Infect Dis. 2007);
 
"Human T-lymphotropic virus 1"[Majr]
 
Retroviridae - Orthoretrovirinae - Deltaretrovirus - Primate T-lymphotropic virus 2 - Human T-lymphotropic virus 2
Acronym: HTLV-2
In endemically infected populations, transmitted through sexual contact, via breast-feeding, via needle sharing among intravenous drug users (IDUs). Emergent Infectious Agent Transforms normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. There is accumulating evidence that like HTLV-I, infection may also be associated with rare lymphoproliferative and neurological disorders. Hall WW et al (J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996);
 
Vandamme AM et al. (Gene. 2000);
 
"Human T-lymphotropic virus 2"[Majr]
 
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Lentivirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Retroviridae - Orthoretrovirinae - Lentivirus - Primate lentivirus group - Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Acronym: HIV-1
Transmitted through sexual contact, by mother to child transmission via breast-feeding, due to blood-borne transmission via needle sharing among intravenous drug users (IDUs), through contaminated blood products. Emergent Infectious Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; Global Human Pathogen; Validated Biocrime Agent Causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, an acquired defect of cellular immunity, a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1): anatomy, life cycle, origin, disease, treatment at MetaPathogen
Retroviridae - Orthoretrovirinae - Lentivirus - Primate lentivirus group - Human immunodeficiency virus 2
Acronym: HIV-2
Transmitted through sexual contact, by mother to child transmission via breast-feeding, due to blood-borne transmission via needle sharing among intravenous drug users (IDUs), through contaminated blood products. HIV-2 is less contagious than HIV-1. Epidemic in West Africa. Emergent Infectious Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; Global Human Pathogen; Validated Biocrime Agent Causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in only a minority of infected individuals. de Silva TI et al. (Trends Microbiol. 2008)
 
"HIV-2"[Majr]
 
"HIV Infections"[Majr]
 
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Hepadnaviridae

viruses - Retro-transcribing viruses -

 

Orthohepadnavirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Hepadnaviridae - Orthohepadnavirus - Hepatitis B virus - Acronym: HBV
Spread mainly by exposure to infected blood or body secretions. In infected individuals, the virus can be found in the blood, semen, vaginal discharge, breast milk, and saliva. Globally Important Human Pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent Causes chronic and acute hepatitis. Associated with liver cirrhosis and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cao GW. (World J Gastroenterol. 2009);
 
"Hepatitis B virus"[Majr]
 
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