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Single-stranded negative strand RNA viruses

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Based on:
Ecker DJ, Sampath R, Willett P, Wyatt JR, Samant V, Massire C, Hall TA, Hari K, McNeil JA, Büchen-Osmond C, Budowle B. The Microbial Rosetta Stone Database: A compilation of global and emerging infectious microorganisms and bioterrorist threat agents BMC Microbiol. 2005; 5: 19.

 

 

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viruses - ssRNA viruses - ssRNA negative-strand viruses -

Arenaviridae

 

New World arenaviruses

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Arenaviridae - Arenavirus - New world arenaviruses - Guanarito virus
Acronym: GTOV
Transmission to humans occurs through direct contact with infected rodents, including bites, or through inhalation of infectious rodent excreta and secreta. Distributed in Venezuela. NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen; HHS Select Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; Zoonotic Agent Causes Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever. Principal symptoms include fever, malaise, headache, arthralgia, sore throat, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, convulsions, and a variety of hemorrhagic manifestations. de Manzione N et al. (Clin Infect Dis. 1998);
 
Cajimat MN, Fulhorst CF. (Virus Res. 2004);
 
"Guanarito virus"
 
Arenaviridae - Arenavirus - New world arenaviruses - Junin virus
Acronym: JUNV
Transmission to humans occurs through direct contact with infected rodents (Calomys musculinus), including bites, or through inhalation of infectious rodent excreta and secreta. Distributed in Argentina. NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen; HHS Select Agent; Potential Biological Weapon; Zoonotic Agent; High Potential Bioengeneering Causes Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal. Carballal G et al. (Eur J Epidemiol. 1988);
 
"Junin virus"[Majr]
 
Arenaviridae - Arenavirus - New world arenaviruses - Machupo virus
Acronym: MACV
Transmission to humans occurs through direct contact with infected rodents, including bites, or through inhalation of infectious rodent excreta and secreta. Distributed in Bolivia. NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen; HHS Select Agent; Potential Biological Weapon; Zoonotic Agent Causes Bolivian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, conjunctivitis, depression, anorexia; and on later stages, neurological disorders, and coma. Cajimat MN et al. (Virus Res. 2009);
 
Eddy GA et al. (Bull World Health Organ. 1975);
 
"Machupo virus"
 
Arenaviridae - Arenavirus - New world arenaviruses - Sabia virus
Transmission to humans occurs through direct contact with infected rodents, including bites, or through inhalation of infectious rodent excreta and secreta. Distributed in Brazil. Emergent Infectious Agent; HHS Select Agent; Zoonotic Agent Causes Brazilian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, conjunctivitis, depression, anorexia and other symptoms characteristic for hemorrhagic fever disease. Lisieux T et al. (Lancet. 1994);
 
"Sabia virus"
 
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Old World arenaviruses

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Arenaviridae - Arenavirus - Old world arenaviruses - Lassa virus
Transmission to humans occurs through direct contact with infected rodents (natural host is mouse Mastomys natalensis), including bites, or through inhalation of infectious rodent excreta and secreta. Distributed in West Africa. NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen; HHS Select Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; Zoonotic Agent; Potential Biological Weapon; High Potential For Bioengeneering Causes Lassa fever, a disease characterized by by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. Walker DH et al. (Am J Pathol. 1982);
 
Ogbu O et al. (J Vector Borne Dis. 2007);
 
"Lassa virus"[Majr]
 
Arenaviridae - Arenavirus - Old world arenaviruses - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
Acronym: LCMV
Transmission to humans occurs through direct contact with infected rodents (house and laboratory mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters with silent infection), including bites, or through inhalation of infectious rodent excreta and secreta. NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen; Potential Biological Weapon Causes aseptic meningitis, although it may be associated with systemic organ failure in immunocompromised patients. Also a teratogenic pathogen that causes a severe and often fatal syndrome with hydrocephalus and chorioretinitis. Affected infants suffer from blindness, deafness, mental retardation, and paresis. Matullo CM et al. (J Virol. 2010);
 
Ceianu C et al. (Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008);
 
"Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus"[Majr]
 
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Paramyxoviridae

 

Rubulavirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Mononegavirales - Paramyxoviridae - Paramyxovirinae - Rubulavirus - Mumps virus
Transmission occurs by droplet infection. CDC Notifiable Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen Affects mainly children. The hallmark of infection is swelling of the parotid gland. Aseptic meningitis and encephalitis are common complications together with orchitis and oophoritis (in adult men and women, respectively); other complications include deafness and pancreatitis. Saylor LF. (Calif Med. 1969);
 
Hviid A et al. (Lancet. 2008);
 
"Mumps virus"[Majr]
 
Mononegavirales - Paramyxoviridae - Paramyxovirinae - Rubulavirus - Human parainfluenza virus 2
Transmission occurs by droplet infection. Persists for up to 10 hours on nonabsorptive surfaces and up to 4 hours on absorptive surfaces which suggests that fomites can be a possible source of transmission. Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes acute laryngotracheitis in children aged 6 months to 3 years (croup). Henrickson KJ. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003);
 
"Parainfluenza Virus 2, Human"[Majr]
 
"Croup"[Majr]
 
Mononegavirales - Paramyxoviridae - Paramyxovirinae - Rubulavirus - Human parainfluenza virus 4
Transmission occurs by droplet infection. Considered common pathogen. Infection frequently remains undiagnosed. Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes respiratory tract infections that are usually mild. Lau SK et al. (J Clin Microbiol. 2005);
 
Vachon ML et al. (Emerg Infect Dis. 2006);
 
"Parainfluenza Virus 4, Human"[Majr]
 
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Respirovirus

 

Mononegavirales - Paramyxoviridae - Paramyxovirinae - Respirovirus - Human parainfluenza virus 1
Also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2)
Transmission occurs by droplet infection. Considered common pathogen. Globally Important Human Pathogen Causes lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. Henrickson KJ. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003);
 
"Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human"[Majr]
 
Mononegavirales - Paramyxoviridae - Paramyxovirinae - Respirovirus - Human parainfluenza virus 3
Transmission occurs by droplet infection. Considered common pathogen. Globally Important Human Pathogen Frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Lee MS et al. (Hum Vaccin. 2005);
 
Henrickson KJ. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003);
 
"Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human"[Majr]
 
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Pneumovirus

 

Mononegavirales - Paramyxoviridae - Pneumovirinae - Pneumovirus - Human respiratory syncytial virus
Acronym RSV
Transmission occurs by droplet infection. A significant association established between allergic conjunctivitis and the presence of RSV in the eye. Globally Important Human Pathogen The RSV disease, often loosely called "croup" in children, is characterized by symptoms that are not unlike those of common cold or flu, i.e., wheezing, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and asthma. RSV continues to be the leading killer among infectious diseases, with an annual death toll of about a million worldwide. Oshansky CM et al. (Future Microbiol. 2009);
 
"Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human"[Majr]
 
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Morbillivirus

 

Mononegavirales - Paramyxoviridae - Paramyxovirinae - Morbillivirus - Measles virus
Highly contagious. Transmission usually occurs through the cough or sneeze of an infected person. Globally Important Human Pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent Causes an acute disease characterized by high fever, cough, and a maculopapular rash. By infecting lymphoid organs causes temporary and severe immunosuppression and secondary bacterial infections are a major cause of measles-related deaths. Takeda M. (J Clin Invest. 2008);
 
"Measles virus"[Majr]
 

Filoviridae

 

Marburgvirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Mononegavirales - Filoviridae - Marburgvirus - Lake Victoria marburgvirus
Acronym: MARV
Circulates in rhesus, vervet, and squirrel monkeys, and bats. The virus can be spread to humans through direct contact with body fluids (e.g., blood, saliva, and urine). Transmission also might be possible through contact with contaminated objects where it might survive for several days. High Potential For Bioengeneering; Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; Potential Biological Weapon; HHS Select Pathogen; NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen Can progress within 6-8 days to severe hemorrhagic manifestations. Maculopapular rash might occur, followed by vomiting, chest pain, sore throat, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Symptoms can include jaundice, inflammation of the pancreas, weight loss, delirium, shock, liver failure, massive hemorrhaging, and multi-organ dysfunction. Towner JS et al. (J Virol. 2006);
 
"Marburg Virus Disease"[Majr]
 
"Marburgvirus"[Majr]
 

 

Ebolavirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Mononegavirales - Filoviridae - Ebola-like viruses
Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus
Reston ebolavirus
Sudan ebolavirus
Zaire ebolavirus
unclassified Ebola-like viruses
Acronym: EBOV
Circulates in rhesus, vervet, and squirrel monkeys, and bats. The virus can be spread to humans through direct contact with body fluids (e.g., blood, saliva, and urine). Transmission also might be possible through contact with contaminated objects where it might survive for several days. High Potential For Bioengeneering; Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; Potential Biological Weapon; HHS Select Pathogen; NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen Flu-like symptoms in 2-21 days. Multi-system involvement, including systemic (prostration, lethargy), gastrointestinal, respiratory, vascular and neurologic, follows. Hemorrhagic manifestations include petechiae, ecchymoses, uncontrolled bleeding from venipuncture sites, epistaxis and other mucosal hemorrhages, and postmortem evidence of visceral hemorrhagic effusions. Ebolavirus: disease, life cycle, health complications, treatment options at MetaPathogen
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Bornaviridae

Mononegavirales - Bornaviridae - Bornavirus - Borna disease virus
Natural pathogen of horses and sheep. Known to infect several species ranging from birds to primates. The virus is shed with secretions from the respiratory tract, conjunctiva and faeces and is supposed to spread intranasally. Disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East. Medically Important Human Pathogen; Zoonotic Agent Causes neurological and behavioral disturbances. The hypothesis that BDV is associated with human illness is controversial. Patients with affective disorders show an enhanced prevalence of Borna disease virus (BDV)-infection. Furthermore, BDV causes latent infection preferably in limbic central nervous structures and is suggested to be causally related to subtypes of affective disorders, especially with melancholic clinical features or bipolarity. Thakur R et al. (Indian J Med Microbiol. 2009);
 
Ikuta K et al. (Front Biosci. 2002);
 
"Borna disease virus"[Majr]
 
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Rhabdoviridae

Mononegavirales - Rhabdoviridae - Lyssavirus - Rabies virus
Transmitted mostly by animal bites through saliva. Raccoons, foxes and bats are important wildlife resrvoir of this virus. Medically Important Human Pathogen; Zoonotic Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; NIAID Category C Priority Pathogen Causes an acute viral encephalitis. Clinical manifestations vary, but the neurological phase often includes increased aggression and the tendency to bite and thereby transmit infection; rapid progression to death is inevitable. Human rabies is nearly 100% fatal if prophylactic measures are not followed shortly after exposure. Madhusudana SN, Sukumaran SM. (Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2008);
 
Hampson K et al. (PLoS Biol. 2009);
 
"Rabies virus"[Majr]
 
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Orthomyxoviridae

Orthomyxoviridae -
Influenzavirus A
Influenzavirus B
Influenzavirus C
Transmitted usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces. Globally Important Human Pathogen; Zoonotic Agent; High Potential For Bioengeneering; NIAID Category C Priority Pathogen Cause influenza, an acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the nasal mucosa and pharynx; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia. Influenza: facts and myths, life cycle, health complications, treatment options at MetaPathogen
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Bunyaviridae

 

Nairovirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Bunyaviridae - Nairovirus - Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
Acronym: CCHFV
Primarily transmitted by ticks. The infectivity of the virus via usual routine contacts with patients (contact with blood, non-sanguineous body fluids, the patient's skin, sexual contact, eating at the same table) appears to be low. Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; NIAID Category C Priority Pathogen; Potential Biological Weapon; HHS Select Pathogen Characterized by a sudden onset of high fever, chills, and severe headache. Other symptoms can include gastrointestinal disorders, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In severe cases, hemorrhagic manifestations can occur and often present as large areas of ecchymosis, rather than frank bleeding. Fatality rate as high as 30%. Mardani M, Keshtkar-Jahromi M. (Arch Iran Med. 2007);
 
"Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean"[Majr];
 
"Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo"[Majr]
 

 

Hantaviruses

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Bunyaviridae - Hantavirus - Hantaan virus
Synonym: Korean hemorrhagic fever virus
Rodent Apodemus agrarius is primary wildlife reservoir. Transmitted in aerosols containing rodent urine, droppings or nesting materials. Rarely (if at all) transmitted from one person to another. Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen; Potential Biological Weapon Causes clinically severe pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Hantaviruses: facts, infection pathways, life cycle, bibliography at MetaPathogen
Bunyaviridae - Hantavirus - Seoul virus
Synonym: Epidemic hemorrhagic fever virus
Circulates in rats, especially Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus. Transmitted in aerosols containing rodent urine, droppings or nesting materials. Rarely (if at all) transmitted from one person to another. Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; Potential Biological Weapon Causes milder hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) than Hantaan virus. Hantaviruses: facts, infection pathways, life cycle, bibliography at MetaPathogen
Bunyaviridae - Hantavirus - Puumala virus
Synonyms: nephropathia epidemica virus, Puumala virus PV
It is found in most of Europe and especially in Finland, along with its carrier rodent, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). Transmission occurs via inhalation of aerosolized rodent excreta. Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent Causes nephropathia epidemica, a mild form hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Hantaviruses: facts, infection pathways, life cycle, bibliography at MetaPathogen
Bunyaviridae - Hantavirus - Sin Nombre virus
Circulates in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and pinyon mice (P. truei). Transmission occurs via inhalation of aerosolized rodent excreta. Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; High Potential For Bioengeneering; CDC Notifiable Agent; NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen; Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes a serious, often fatal pulmonary illness (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome) in humans. Hantaviruses: facts, infection pathways, life cycle, bibliography at MetaPathogen
Bunyaviridae - Hantavirus - Bayou virus
Circulates in rodents Oryzomys palustris (most commonly infected species), Sigmodon hispidus, Peromyscus leucopus, Reithrodontomys fulvescens, and Baiomys taylori. Transmission occurs via inhalation of aerosolized rodent excreta. Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; CDC Notifiable Agent; NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen; Medically Important Human Pathogen The second-leading agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the United States. Hantaviruses: facts, infection pathways, life cycle, bibliography at MetaPathogen

 

Orthobunyavirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Bunyaviridae - Orthobunyavirus - California encephalitis virus - La Crosse virus
Acronym: LACV
Serotypes of the species are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
La Crosse disease recurs every summer in endemic foci in the midwestern and mid-Atlantic United States in areas forested with hardwood trees, which provide breeding sites for the treehole-dwelling mosquito vector, Aedes triseriatus.
Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent Initial symptoms include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and tiredness. Some of those who become ill develop severe neuroinvasive disease (disease that affects the nervous system). Severe LACV disease often involves encephalitis (an inflammation of the brain) and can include seizures, coma, and paralysis. Severe disease occurs most often in children under the age of 16. Bennett RS et al. (Virol J. 2008);
 
"Encephalitis Virus, California"[Majr]
 

 

Phlebovirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Bunyaviridae - Orthobunyavirus - Rift Valley fever virus
Acronym: RVFV
Transmitted mostly by the bloodsucking sandfly Phlebotomus papatasii. Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen; Potential Biological Weapon; HHS Select Pathogen; USDA High Consequence Animal Pathogen Causes influenza-like febrile disease. May also present as a haemorrhagic disease with liver involvement; there may also be ocular or neurological lesions. In animals, RVF may be inapparent in non-pregnant adults, but outbreaks are characterised by the onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. Jaundice hepatitis and death are seen in older animals. Gerdes GH. (Rev Sci Tech. 2004);
 
"Phlebotomus Fever"[Majr]
 
"Rift Valley fever virus"[Majr]