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Single-stranded positive strand RNA viruses

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Based on:
Ecker DJ, Sampath R, Willett P, Wyatt JR, Samant V, Massire C, Hall TA, Hari K, McNeil JA, Büchen-Osmond C, Budowle B. The Microbial Rosetta Stone Database: A compilation of global and emerging infectious microorganisms and bioterrorist threat agents BMC Microbiol. 2005; 5: 19.

 

 

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viruses - ssRNA viruses - ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage -

Astroviridae

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Astroviridae - Mamastrovirus - Human astrovirus
Found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. Medically Important Human Pathogen; Principal Foodborne Pathogen Causes gastroenteritis. Leading cause of diarrhea worldwide. Koci MD et al. (J Virol. 2003 Nov);
 
Moser LA, Schultz-Cherry S. (Viral Immunol. 2005);
 
"Mamastrovirus"[Majr]
 
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Coronaviridae

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Nidovirales - Coronaviridae - Coronavirinae - Betacoronavirus - Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus
Acronym: SARSr-CoV
Bats' population is a natural reservoir of SARS-like coronaviruses. Initial infections involved disproportionate numbers of animal handlers, chefs, and caterers. Subsequently, person-to-person aerosol transmission led to outbreaks. High Potential For Bioengeneering; CDC Notifiable Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen; NIAID Category C Priority Pathogen Causes Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Aggressive quarantine measures successfully terminated the disease. Currently, there are no SARS cases recorded and most likely the virus no longer circulates in the human population. Stadler K, Rappuoli R. (Curr Mol Med. 2005);
 
Wang LF et al. (Emerg Infect Dis. 2006);
 
"SARS Virus"[Majr]
 
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Caliciviridae

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Caliciviridae - Norovirus - Norwalk virus
Acronym: NV
Virus shed in feces. Most likely transmitted via oral-fecal route and in contaminated food. Inhalation with subsequent ingestion is also possible. Principal Foodborne Pathogen; Globally Important Human Pathogen; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen The most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in the United States. Marks PJ et al. (Epidemiol Infect. 2000);
 
Atmar RL et al. (Emerg Infect Dis. 2008);
 
"Norwalk virus"[Majr]
 
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Togaviridae

 

Rubivirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Togaviridae - Rubivirus - Rubella virus
Humans are the only natural host. Spread by contact with an infected person, through coughing and sneezing. CDC Notifiable Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen Causes an acute viral disease that causes fever and rash. May cause birth defects. Chakravarti A, Jain M. (Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006);
 
"Rubella virus"[Majr]
 

 

Alphavirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Togaviridae - Alphavirus - SFV complex - Chikungunya virus
Acronym: CHIKV
Mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are potential vectors of chikungunya virus. Zoonotic Agent; Potential Biological Weapon; Emergent Human Pathogen Causes an acute dengue-like fever. characterized by a sudden onset of high fever, rash and joint pain (arthralgia). The most significant symptom of CHIKV-related disease consists of a painful arthralgia that occurs in almost 100% of patients. Most infections resolve within weeks. Cavrini F et al. (J Infect Dev Ctries.;3(10):744-52);
 
Dubrulle M et al. (PLoS One. 2009);
 
"Chikungunya virus"[Majr]
 
Togaviridae - Alphavirus - SFV complex - O'nyong-nyong virus
Acronym: ONNV
Transmitted by the bite of anopheline mosquitoes. Human infections with ONNV have only been documented in eastern Africa. Zoonotic Agent; Potential Biological Weapon; Emergent Human Pathogen Typically causes a "flu-like" illness that ranges from mild to severe. Rash, myalgia and arthralgia ("O'nyong-nyong" means "severe joint pain" in the language of the Acholi people of East Africa) are common. Bessaud M et al. (Emerg Infect Dis. 2006);
 
Posey DL et al. (Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005);
 
"o'nyong-nyong virus"[All Fields]
 
Togaviridae - Alphavirus - SFV complex - Ross River virus
Acronym: RRV
Transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes. Distributed throughout Australia and numerous outbreaks have occurred. Many vertebrate species are considered to be a natural reservoir of the virus. Zoonotic Agent; Potential Biological Weapon; Emergent Human Pathogen Arthralgia is the most common presenting symptom and is usually associated with rash, fever and lethargy. Symptoms usually resolve within 6 months. Kay BH et al. (Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007);
 
Barber B et al. (Aust Fam Physician. 2009);
 
"Ross river virus"[Majr]
 
Togaviridae - Alphavirus - EEEV complex - Eastern equine encephalitis virus
Acronym: EEEV
EEE virus perpetuates in an enzootic cycle involving ornithophilic mosquito vectors, principally Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) and avian amplification hosts. Zoonotic Agent; Potential Biological Weapon; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen; High Potential For Bioengeneering; Potential Biological Weapon; HHS Select Agent; USDA High Consequence Animal Pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent Causes severe encephalitis in humans. Patients experience the sudden onset of fever, chills, myalgia, arthralgia, retro-ocular pain, a headache, and decreased consciousness for several days. Progresses rapidly to neurological disease with the possibility of paralysis, seizures, coma, and death in 30 to 80% of patients. Gardner CL et al. (J Virol. 2008);
 
Molaei G et al. (Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006);
 
"Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine"[Majr]
 
Togaviridae - Alphavirus - WEEV complex - Western equine encephalitis virus
Acronym: WEEV
Found in western North America and South America, and within western North America utilizes a mosquito-bird cycle with Culex tarsalis as the primary vector. Zoonotic Agent; Potential Biological Weapon; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen; High Potential For Bioengeneering; Potential Biological Weapon; CDC Notifiable Agent Causes severe neurological disease in humans and equids. Infection can result in mild to severe neurologic sequelae in human survivors, and has an economic impact ranging from $21,000 to $3 million dollars per case. Nagata LP et al. (J Gen Virol. 2006);
 
Forrester NL et al. (Virology. 2008);
 
"Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine"[Majr]
 
Togaviridae - Alphavirus - VEEV complex - Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
Acronym: VEEV
Most human and animal disease occurs when VEEV undergoes an amplification cycle where equids (horses, donkeys and mules) become infected and develop high titer viremia, facilitating transmission by Aedes and Psorophora spp. mosquitoes to susceptible equids or people. Zoonotic Agent; Potential Biological Weapon; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen; High Potential For Bioengeneering; HHS Select Agent; USDA High Consequence Animal Pathogen Typically causes a "flu-like" illness that ranges from mild to severe, with prominent lymphoid and reticuloendothelial involvement. Progression to neurological disease occurs in only 4 to 14% of symptomatic cases, and fatalities are rare. Quiroz E et al. (PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009);
 
Gardner CL et al. (J Virol. 2008);
 
"Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine"[Majr]
 
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Flaviviridae

 

Hepacivirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Flaviviridae - Hepacivirus - Hepatitis C virus
Acronym: HCV
Blood-borne. Syringes, razors, scissors, toothbrushes and other items that can be contaminated by blood can serve as vehicles of the virus. Other possible routes: high-risk sexual contacts and perinatal transmission have also been documented. CDC Notifiable Agent; Globally Important Human Pathogen; Validated Biocrime Agent Usually produces no signs or symptoms during its earliest stages. When signs and symptoms do occur, they're generally mild and flu-like and may include fever, fatigue, myalgia, tenderness of the liver. Can cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis C Virus (HCV): anatomy, life cycle, origin, disease, treatment at MetaPathogen

 

Flavivirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Flaviviridae - Flavivirus - Dengue virus group - Dengue virus
Dengue virus 1   Dengue virus 2   Dengue virus 3   Dengue virus 4
Transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, especially A. aegypti. Aedes aegypti: life cycle, biting habits, transmitted diseases at MetaPathogen High Potential For Bioengeneering; Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen; Potential Biological Weapon; NIAID Category A Priority Pathogen Causes an acute eruptive, febrile disease. Classical dengue (dengue fever) is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever is characterized by thrombocytopenia and hemoconcentration (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive tourniquet test. When accompanied by circulatory failure and shock (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome. "Dengue virus"[Majr]
 
"Dengue"[Majr]
 
"Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever"[Majr]
 
Flaviviridae - Flavivirus - Japanese encephalitis virus group - Japanese encephalitis virus
Acronym: JEV
Distributed in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. The virus is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between ardeid wading birds and/or pigs and Culex mosquitoes. The primary mosquito vector of JEV is Culex tritaeniorhynchus. High Potential For Bioengeneering; Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; USDA High Consequence Animal Pathogen; Potential Biological Weapon; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen Causes a wide range of presentations. Can cause an acute encephalitis; can progress to paralysis, seizures, coma and death. Japanese Encephalitis Fact Sheet (CDC);
 
van den Hurk AF et al. (Annu Rev Entomol. 2009);
 
"Encephalitis Virus, Japanese"[Majr]
 
Flaviviridae - Flavivirus - Japanese encephalitis virus group - St. Louis encephalitis virus
Acronym: SLEV
Distributed in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. Mosquito-borne (Culex spp.). Birds are natural reservoir. Zoonotic Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent; Potential Biological Weapon People with mild illness often have only a headache and fever. More severe infection is marked by headache, high fever, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, occasional convulsions and spastic (but rarely flaccid) paralysis. St. Louis Encephalitis Fact Sheet (CDC);
 
May FJ et al. (J Gen Virol. 2008);
 
"Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis"[Majr]
 
Flaviviridae - Flavivirus - Japanese encephalitis virus group - West Nile virus
Acronym: WNV
Transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito (amplification vector).
Culex pipiens: life cycle, biting habits, vector of West Nile Virus at MetaPathogen Birds from order Passeriformes are main reservoir hosts. Mammals, including humans, are incidental (usually dead-end) hosts.
High Potential For Bioengeneering; Zoonotic Agent; Emergent Infectious Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent; USDA High Consequence Animal Pathogen; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen Approximately 80 percent of people who are infected with WNV will not show any symptoms at all. Severe symptoms can include high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, vision loss, numbness and paralysis. Neurological effects may be permanent. West Nile virus: facts, biology, transmission, references at MetaPathogen
Flaviviridae - Flavivirus - tick-borne encephalitis virus group - Kyasanur forest disease virus
Acronym: KFDV
Found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by ticks and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep. The main hosts of KFDV are small rodents. Zoonotic Agent; HHS Select Agent; Potential Biological Weapon; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen Begins suddenly with fever, headache, severe muscle pain, cough, dehydration, gastrointestinal symptoms and bleeding. After 1-2 weeks of symptoms, some patients recover. However, in most patients, the illness is biphasic and the patient begins experiencing a second wave of symptoms at the beginning of the third week. Kyasanur Forest Disease Fact Sheet (CDC);
 
Mehla R et al. (Emerg Infect Dis. 2009);
 
"Kyasanur forest disease"
 
Flaviviridae - Flavivirus - Yellow fever virus group - Yellow fever virus
Acronym: YFV
Endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America; nearly 90% of YF cases and deaths occur in Africa. Virus transmission occurs between humans, mosquitoes, and monkeys by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Mosquitoes can pass the virus transovarially through infected eggs. High Potential For Bioengeneering; Zoonotic Agent; CDC Notifiable Pathogen; Potential Biological Weapon; NIAID Category C Priority Pathogen Causes an acute disease characterized by sudden onset with a two-phase development, separated by a short period of remission. Symptoms vary from very mild, nonspecific, febrile illness to a fulminating, sometimes fatal disease. In severe cases, jaundice, bleeding diathesis, with hepatorenal involvement are common. Yellow Fever Fact Sheet (CDC);
 
"Yellow fever"[Majr]
 
"Yellow fever virus"[Majr]
 
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Picornaviridae

 

Hepatovirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Picornavirales - Picornaviridae - Hepatovirus - Hepatitis A virus - Human hepatitis A virus
Acronym: HHAV
Spread of infection is generally person to person or by oral intake after fecal contamination of skin or mucous membranes; less commonly, there is fecal contamination of food or water. CDC Notifiable Agent; Medically Important Human Pathogen; Principal Foodborne Pathogen; NIAID Category B Priority Pathogen Causes inflammation of the liver (hepatitis). Acute HAV infection is clinically indistinguishable from other causes of acute viral hepatitis. In young children the disease is often asymptomatic, whereas in older children and adults there may be a range of clinical manifestations from mild, anicteric infection to fulminant hepatic failure. Cuthbert JA. (Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001);
 
"Hepatitis A"[Majr];
 
"Hepatitis A Virus, Human"[Majr]
 

 

Rhinovirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Picornavirales - Picornaviridae - Enterovirus -
Human rhinovirus A    Human rhinovirus B
Infected persons readily contaminate their hands and rhinovirus can be recovered from surfaces they touched with their fingers. Contamination of nasal mucosa and eyes with the virus is considered main route of transmission. Medically Important Human Pathogen The virus is associated with common cold. Infections of the respiratory tract are the most common triggers of acute asthma exacerbations. Epidemiology and Prevention of Pediatric Viral Respiratory Infections in Health-Care Institutions (CDC);
 
Brownlee JW, Turner RB. (Curr Opin Pediatr. 2008);
 
"Rhinovirus"[Majr]
 

 

Enterovirus

 

Transmission Importance Disease description Selected literature
Picornavirales - Picornaviridae - Enterovirus -
Human enterovirus A    Human enterovirus B     Human enterovirus C     Human enterovirus D
Although the major route for transmission of the CVB is fecal-oral, vertical transmission from mother to infant is also possible. Medically Important Human Pathogen; Emergent Infectious Agent Can cause herpangina (ulcers and sores inside the mouth, and a sore throat and fever), aseptic meningitis, a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (an acute, febrile, infectious disease generally occurring in epidemics) and a serious myocarditis. "Enterovirus"[Majr];
 
"Coxsackievirus Infections"[Majr]
 
Picornavirales - Picornaviridae - Enterovirus - Human enterovirus C -
Human poliovirus 1   Human poliovirus 2   Human poliovirus 3
Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Globally Important Human Pathogen; CDC Notifiable Agent Causes poliomyelitis. Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, muscle twitching and hyporeflexia. "Poliomyelitis"[Majr];
 
"Poliovirus"[Majr]